New discoveries in space 2017



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You know that our Earth with its moon companion, other planets and their satellites, comets and small planets revolve around the Sun, that all these bodies constitute the Solar system. In turn, the Sun and all other stars visible in the sky enter the huge star system - our Galaxy. The star closest to the solar system is so far away that the light that travels at a speed of 300,000 km / s goes from it to Earth for more than four years. The stars are the most common type of celestial bodies, in our galaxy alone there are several hundred billion. The volume occupied by this stellar system is so great that light can cross it only for 100 thousand years.

The main structural units of the universe are "star islands" - galaxies like ours. One of them is in the constellation of Andromeda. It is a giant galaxy, similar in structure to ours and consisting of hundreds of billions of stars. The light from it to the Earth goes more than 2 million years. The Andromeda galaxy together with our Galaxy and several other smaller galaxies form the so-called Local Group. Some of the star systems of this group, including the Big and Small Magellanic Clouds, the galaxies in the constellations of the Sculptor, the Little Ursa, the Dragon, Orion, are the companions of our Galaxy. Together with it, they turn around the common center of mass. It is the location and motion of galaxies that determines the structure and structure of the universe as a whole.

The galaxies are so far apart that you can see only the nearest three with your naked eye: two - in the Southern Hemisphere - the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Small Magellanic Cloud, and only one from the north - the Andromeda Nebula.

Dwarf galaxy in the constellation of Sagittarius - the closest to our galaxy the Milky Way. This small galaxy is so close that the Milky Way seems to absorb it. The Galaxy in Sagittarius lies at a distance of 80 thousand light-years from the Sun and 52 thousand light-years from the center of the Milky Way. The next closest galaxy is the Large Magellanic Cloud, 170,000 light-years away. Until 1994, when the dwarf galaxy was discovered in the constellation of Sagittarius, it was thought that the closest galaxy was the Great Magellanic Cloud.

From the most distant galaxies, light reaches Earth for 10 billion years. A significant part of the matter of stars and galaxies is in such conditions, which can not be created in terrestrial laboratories. All space is filled with electromagnetic radiation, gravitational and magnetic fields, between the stars in galaxies and between galaxies is a very rarefied substance in the form of gas, dust, individual molecules, atoms and ions, atomic nuclei and elementary particles. As you know, the distance to the nearest celestial body, the Moon, is about 400,000 km. The most remote objects are located from us at a distance that exceeds the distance to the Moon by more than 10 times. Let's try to imagine the sizes of celestial bodies and the distance between them in the Universe, using the well-known model - the school globe of the Earth, which is 50 million times smaller than our planet. In this case, we must represent the Moon with a ball about 7 cm in diameter, which is about 7.5 m from the globe. The Sun model will have a diameter of 28 m and will be at a distance of 3 km, and the model of Pluto, the farthest planet of the Solar System, will be removed From us for 120 km. The closest star to us at this scale of the model will be located at a distance of approximately 800,000 km, that is, 2 times farther than the Moon. The dimensions of our Galaxy will be reduced to about the size of the solar system, but the farthest stars will still be outside of it.

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